Archive for the ‘drama’ Category

text and role analysis

March 6, 2017

what is it and why?

text analysis is decomposition of text’s  meanging layers. with this method, player can define clearly how to act.


  1. read the text clear way.
  2. learn writer’s social, psychological and physiologic situation
  3. answer these questions about text:
    1. when/where/for what had it been writen?
    2. which is it from art school?
    3. what are ethical values in text?
    4. etc.. try to get meta-information about text.

steps of text analysis

  1. evaluate text from a literary point of view.
    1. had it been written as poetic or  prose?
    2. structure analysis of sentences like inversion or simple, or complex structure.
    3. dramatic/action value of text. when do characters be in conflict?
    4. value of  acting. Is it easy to perform text? does scene, costumes etc.. can be found easily?
  2. find genre of text
    1. tragedya, comedy or fantastic..
    2. this is important. the genre requires a certain attitude. for ex, if we play Moliere, we must play exaggeratedly, or if we play Shakespeare we must play fine tuned acting.
  3. identify dramatic structure
    1. find theme, subject and messages in text
    2. find exposition,climax and solution sections
    3. define how these are introduced fastly/slowly according to all text.
  4. analyze of characters
    1. what are the strongest and weakness specialities of each charachter?
    2. what are the 3-dimentions each character at begin of the text. While text finishing, are there any dimesion which changed?
    3. How/why are dimensions changed? (step-2 and step-3 are very important. because “drama means changing!”)
    4. Are characters changed by themselves or social or environmental conditions?
    5. what is the function of each character in text?
    6. Does each character has some symbolic functions like goodness, badness or wealth?
  5. list below
    1. events order
    2. relationship of characters
    3. reason and result each event
  6. now read again text with your character. answer below questions for this character
    1. how does he see himself?
    2. how does he see other characters?
    3. what does he think about other characters’ ideas for him?
    4. how does he  explain himself with body, speach, mimics and gesture?
    5. does he talk a lot or not? does he say each idea?
    6. is poetic, philosophical or sarcastic etc.. his dialogue?
    7. what kind of words does  he select while speaking or inner thinking?
    8. how  does he behave to other characters. why? when? where?
    9. what kind of relationship does he have. why? when? where?
    10. how does he affect the events?
    11. how is his perception,effect and response? how does he react to other characters speachs, actions and ideas?

understand character’s physiology

  1. apperance of the role : find physical apperance that fits to role
    1. healthy or unhealthy
    2. weak or strong
    3. fat or slim etc..
    4. attractive
    5. not like his body and clothes etc..
  2. stance : let’s think about ourselves. when we get angry, we elicit by shouting, fighting or being in silence .. so we must research this depend on role:
    1. what gesture/mimics or voice does role’s feelings explain?
    2. how dominant is his body and his actions? How aware is he in his emotional state?
    3. does he feel free? or is he in stress?
  3. the meaning of the body and the social attitude of the role : actions show feelings and thoughts. by asking below questions we can understand vision of character and how does it affect character’s general physical behavior.
    1. what kind of world does character live in? and how does it affect character? because of the world , he can be athesit, religious or optimistic etc..
    2. how is the social structure? is it agriculture, industrial or modern society etc ?
    3. who are the leading people in the society? why?
    4. how is information learned? by gossipy characters, newspaper, internet, town crier, gods,animals or magican etc..
    5. what are the daily living conditions? Food, warming, shelter etc..
    6. is character outspoken, secretive, influenced by others?
    7. the character can act differently when he is alone or with others.
      1. what is the reason for this behavior change?
      2. what are social positions other people in society and character’s life.
      3. what are 3-dimensions of others characters?
      4. for which expectation does character act differently?

The essence of the method described up to this point is to understand

  1. events and process of story
  2. character and other characters
  3. character’s point of view
  4. how does character see himself, world and other characters? why?
  5. how do world and other characters see character? why?



how to write dialogue

March 4, 2017


  1. write a paragraph for each dialogue. This provides convenience for readers, also looks well. Readers don’t get tired while reading.
  2. use punctuation marks correctly.
    1. “I don’t like sweets,” girl said, “because they are unhealthy.”
    2. “Are you coming to cinema?” he asked.
    3. “I said to him –  ” (if dialogue is interruped, use -)
  3. just use words like “said”, “told”, “asked” … or use words that indicate action or situation.
    1. He raised his dog’s head. He said, “look this satan.” => WRONG
    2. He raised his dog’s head. “Look this satan.” => TRUE
    3. He said, “look this satan.” => TRUE
    1. don’t use words like “get angry, grunt” .. instead of these words, show this situation using words like painting.
      1. “Get out here” she grunt. => WRONG
      2. “I don’t want you here.” she said. After that she pulled out the door, then closed the door sharply. “Do not come here anymore, asshole.” => RIGHT
      3. “I am tired” he said. => CAN BE BETTER
      4. “I cant move my arm. I have walked all day. ” => VERY GOOD
  5. throw away longueur words/parts..
    1. for example most readers don’t read words like “said, told,asked”.. if speaker is known.
    2. repeated words, sentences or ideas. (if repeating something has a mission at story, you can use it. for ex: “Waiting for Godot”)
  6. each dialogues must improve story’s event and flows.
  7. sentences must be simple, but not be prosaic.
  8. don’t let characters speak more than three sentences. So how a dialogue is interrupted?
    1. with natural ending of speaking. there is nothing to tell about situation.
    2. another character interrupt.
    3. interior monologue / idea
    4. some events occur while speaking


  1. answer a question or answer with question. so this starts a topic.
    1. A : do you think it is good?
      B : good? do you know what does “good” mean?
  2. interrupt a dialogue with another character’s speaking or an event which is occuring at that time.
  3. redirect dialogue’s topic.
  4. use silience as dialogue.
  5. add subtext to sentences. Assign meanings to objects, history, feelings, peoples or events at dialogue.
  6. use jokes,sarkastizm, absurds, misunderstandings, surprises, etc ..


  1. to learns character’s aims, hopes, history, feelings and thoughts.
  2. to continue communication and interaction between characters
  3. to learns character’s role (like good, bad, or teacher ..) in story.
  4. to provide new information that helps or hinders to character.
  5. to increase suspicion and tension.
  6. to arise new challenges to character.
  7. to remind character’s , scene’s or story’s aim.


  1. don’t say characters already know.
    1. “We loaned, two years ago to buy this house,” she said to her husband. => FALSE. because husbands knows that situation.
  2. don’t use words or sentences which won’t improve flow of story.
  3. some characters forget important information. So this creates tension.
  4. the dialogue should reflect the three dimensions of the character.


  1. let the another character has different agenda or purpose. thus, he constantly makes contradictions against the speaker.
    1. A : We must talk.
      B : I am very busy now. I must finish the project.
  2.  don’t let characters give required information immediately. They must debate for something. There must be conflicts between them.


  1. pay attention the dialect.
  2. characters can have slight lisp, or use jargon.
  3. strong characters explain themselves with actions, not lot of words. When they feel bad things, they speak.
  4. if you want to start with dialogue to your story, you must enter the subject directly.
  5. emotion>actions>dialogue order:
    1. “i don’t know where it is”. he shook his shoulder. => FALSE
    2. his eyes opened, his breath stopped. he shook his shoulder. “i do not know where.” => RIGHT
    3. “i dont like this place.” Music affected her mind energy. she said, “i wanna go home. let’s”
  6. action- emotion-dialogue orders:
    1. action – dialogue
    2. dialogue – action words (like said, told, asked)
    3. emotion – action – dialogue